The benefits of a closed ICU: A systematic review

Or Belkin BS, Luis Fernandez-Nava MS, Muneeza Sheikh BS, Alan Pang MD, Bettina Schmitz MD, PhD, Chris Vogt MD, Robert V. Johnston MD, Cooper W. Phillips MD, FCCM


This study compared closed and open intensive care unit (ICU) models in terms of patient outcomes. Closed ICUs had reduced mortality rates, shorter lengths of stay, and lower healthcare-associated infection rates. Intensivists in closed ICUs contributed to better outcomes due to their expertise and competence. Enhanced interdisciplinary collaboration, improved communication, and coordination in closed ICUs led to higher patient and family satisfaction. In addition, closed ICUs were more cost-effective, with better resource use and reduced healthcare costs. Overall, closed ICU models have advantages in patient outcomes, better resource use, cost-effectiveness, and patient satisfaction compared to open ICU models.

Keywords: Intensive care unit, ICU, patient outcomes, resource utilization, quality of care

Article citation: Belkin O, Fernandez-Nava L, Sheikh M, Pang A, Schmitz B, Vogt C, Johnston RV, Phillips CW. The benefits of a closed ICU: A systematic review. The Southwest Respiratory and Critical Care Chronicles 2024;12(50):30–37
From: School of Medicine (OB, LFN, MS), Department of Anesthesiology (BS, CV, RVJ, CWP), Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, Texas
Submitted: 10/18/2023
Accepted: 1/18/2024
Conflicts of interest: none
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