Hepatorenal Syndrome

  • Abdussalam Shredi Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX
  • Sakolwan Suchartlikitwong Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX
  • Hawa Edriss Department of Internal Medicine, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX


Hepatorenal syndrome is a form of acute kidney injury that occurs in chronic liver disease and acute fulminant liver failure. This syndrome features a rapid progressive decline in renal function in the absence of other obvious causes of renal dysfunction. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is still not completely understood, and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain its pathogenesis. The characteristic feature of hepatorenal syndrome is intense renal vasoconstriction. The local production of vasodilator substances as a result of portal hypertension have a central role in the pathogenesis of the hepatorenal syndrome as they lead to splanchnic pooling and decreased effective systemic arterial plasma volume and renal vasoconstriction. Hepatorenal syndrome is a diagnosis of exclusion and is considered a challenging medical condition in both diagnosis and treatment as it is associated with a poor prognosis. This article will review the two main hypotheses about the pathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, and treatment approaches to the hepatorenal syndrome.

Keywords: hepatorenal syndrome, liver cirrhosis, portal hypertension, splanchnic vasodilatation, nitric oxide, hepatorenal reflex


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How to Cite
Shredi, A., Suchartlikitwong, S., & Edriss, H. (2018). Hepatorenal Syndrome. The Southwest Respiratory and Critical Care Chronicles, 6(22), 21-28. https://doi.org/10.12746/swrccc.v6i22.439