Gastrointestinal bleeding in pregnant patients with cirrhosis: Pathophysiology, review of outcomes, and management
Pregnancy is a rare event in patients with cirrhosis because the metabolic and hormonal
changes associated with cirrhosis lead to anovulation and amenorrhea. Liver cirrhosis with
portal hypertension is considered one of the most common causes of gastrointestinal bleeding
in general and comes after peptic ulcer disease. Gastrointestinal bleeding in the setting of
portal hypertension occurs secondary to either esophageal varices or portal hypertensive
gastropathy. Its management can be challenging in general, and pregnancy can only make it
more complicated. In this article we will review the management of variceal gastrointestinal
bleeding in pregnancy.
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