Oxidative stress in intensive care unit patients: A review of glutathione linked metabolism and lipid peroxidation
Srikala Meda MD, Sharda P. Singh PhD, Philip T. Palade PhD, Sahil Tonk, Sanjay Awasthi MD
Despite clear evidence of increased oxidative stress in the blood and tissues of critically ill intensive care unit patients, consistent beneficial effects of many different antioxidants have not been observed, and antioxidant therapy has not yet translated into widely accepted clinical practice. The reasons for this are unclear, likely rooted in the complex and context dependent free radical behavior of antioxidants interacting with the process of lipid peroxidation. Control of lipid peroxidation is a crucial requirement for the beneficial effects of antioxidants, but the interactions of biological antioxidant defenses with the potentially harmful free radical behavior of pharmacological antioxidants complicates the dose and selection of the optimal antioxidants. Glutathione, the primary small molecule antioxidant in biological systems, is the primary enzymatic oxidative stress defense that operates in the context of glutathione-linked antioxidant enzymes to metabolize many harmful products of lipid peroxidation to mercapturic acids. Recently, the mercapturic acid transporter protein, RLIP76 (human RALBP1 gene), has been shown to have a critical role in glutathione linked oxidative stress defenses. These findings provide a rationale for new approaches towards selection and dosing of antioxidant to improve their clinical benefit.
Keywords: Oxidative stress, multiorgan failure, lipid peroxidation, antioxidant, Ralbp1, RLIP76, p53, TP53
Article citation: Meda S, Singh SP, Palade PT, Tonk S, Awasthi S. Oxidative stress in intensive care unit patients: a review of glutathione linked metabolism and lipid peroxidation. The Southwest Respiratory and Critical Care chronicles 2019;7(27):7–35
From: Division of Hematology and Oncology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock TX (SPS, SA ST); Division of Hematology and Oncology, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Odessa, TX (SM); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Med Sciences, Little Rock, AR (PTP)
Reviewer: Kenneth Nugent MD
Conflicts of interest: none
This work was supported in part by DoD (W81XWH-18-1-0534), USPHS grant CA 77495, and the funds from Perricone Family Foundation, Los Angeles, CA to SA.This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.
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