Hyperthyroidism-induced dilated cardiomyopathy
Hyperthyroidism is a common endocrine disorder with a prevalence of 1.3% in the general
population, affecting more women than men. Prolonged hyperthyroidism without appropriate
management may lead to high output cardiac failure characterized by increases in heart rate,
cardiac contractility, and cardiac output and by reductions in peripheral systemic vascular
resistance. Dilated cardiomyopathy with impaired systolic function is rare and occurs in less
than 1% of patients with thyrotoxicosis. The exact mechanism of hyperthyroidism-induced
dilated cardiomyopathy is not well established. The combination of direct toxic effects of excess
thyroid hormone along with prolonged tachycardia, arrhythmia, and a hyperdynamic state could
be contributing factors. We present a case of a young woman with prolonged sinus tachycardia
due to a long history of medication non-compliance who developed dilated cardiomyopathy
with low output heart failure. Early detection and management of hyperthyroidism are crucial
to restore cardiac function.
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