The regulation of ACE-2 in the heart and lungs

  • Jonathan Kopel
  • Thomas E. Tenner Jr.
  • Gregory L. Brower
  • Bojana Ristic


The pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 disease remains an active and rapidly evolving area of investigation. Currently, the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 protein (ACE-2) is the primary receptor implicated in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2. In normal physiological responses, the ACE-2 has important roles in regulating the renin-angiotensin systems (RAS) in several organs, including the heart, kidney, and lungs. Dysregulation of ACE-2 has been linked to heart failure, pulmonary hypertension, and diabetic cardiovascular complications. Two main risk factors for COVID-19 include hypertension and cardiovascular disease. However, the precise mechanism causing these risk factors for COVID-19 infectivity remains unknown. In this paper, we provide possible molecular mechanisms that underlie the cardiovascular risk factors for COVID-19.

Keywords: SARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2), hormones, cardiovascular, hypoxia, metabolism, regulation, and pathophysiology


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How to Cite
Kopel, J., Tenner, T., Brower, G., & Ristic , B. (2021). The regulation of ACE-2 in the heart and lungs. The Southwest Respiratory and Critical Care Chronicles, 9(40), 47-52.