Links between exercise/nutrition and antioxidants - protective effects on immune/respiratory systems as defense against viral infections
This paper discusses factors involved in COVID-19 pathophysiology, with a focus on nutrition, exercise, enzymatic antioxidant systems, and the interplay between immune tolerance and resistance. Of all the supplements, zinc has the most evidence for effectiveness against viruses. However, these data were based primarily on studies measuring duration of the common cold rather than on COVID-19, and optimal dosing remains unclear. Exercise has been shown to have protective tolerogenic effects against viral infection due to the impact of extracellular superoxide dismutases (EC-SODs). Exercise may have a combination of beneficial and harmful effects on outright resistance to viruses in the short term, but taken as a whole it likely has a net protective effect on the immune system. The evidence is examined through the lens of the open window theory and a thorough investigation of the relationship between EC-SODs and exercise/diet. By better understanding the host-virus relationship, clinicians and researchers alike can collaborate to establish guiding principles regarding the steps that individuals can take to protect against some of the deleterious effects of viral infections. More research in this area is needed to understand the relationships among exercise, nutrition, and viral disease.
Keywords: COVID-19, SARS CoV-2, nutrition, zinc, EC-SODs, superoxide dismutase, exercise, enzymatic antioxidant/immune systems
Copyright (c) 2020 Abdurrahman Kharbat, Stephen Rossettie, Mimi Zumwalt
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